How much water should you drink each day? It's a simple question with no easy answer.
Up to 60% of the human adult body is water. Our brain and heart composed of 73% water, lungs about 83%, skin 64%, muscles and kidneys 79% and even our bones at 31%.
Needless to say water is essential to good health but most of us are not getting enough.
Studies have produced varying recommendations over the years. But your individual water needs depend on many factors, including your health, how active you are and where you live. No single formula fits everyone. But knowing more about your body's need for fluids will help you estimate how much water to drink each day.
Are there health benefits to drinking water?
Water is your body's principal chemical component and makes up about 50% to 70% of your body weight. Your body depends on water to survive. Every cell, tissue and organ in your body needs water to work properly. For example, water:
Lack of water can lead to dehydration — a condition that occurs when you don't have enough water in your body to carry out normal functions. Even mild dehydration can drain your energy and make you tired or bring on headaches.
How much water do you need?
Every day you lose water through your breath, perspiration, urine and bowel movements. For your body to function properly, you must replenish its water supply by consuming beverages and foods that contain water.
So how much fluid does the average, healthy adult living in a temperate climate need? The U.S. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine determined that an adequate daily fluid intake is:
These recommendations cover fluids from water, other beverages and food. About 20% of daily fluid intake usually comes from food and the rest from drinks.
What about the advice to drink 8 glasses a day?
You've probably heard the advice to drink eight glasses of water a day. That's easy to remember, and it's a reasonable goal.
Most healthy people can stay hydrated by drinking water and other fluids whenever they feel thirsty. For some people, fewer than eight glasses a day might be enough but if you are feeling thirsty, your are already dehydrated to some degree. It is also difficult to distinguish if you are thirsty or hungry. The "thirst centre" in the brain is the Hypothalamus, a deep structure that also regulate sleep, body temperature and appetite. Too often we confuse the thirst queue for hunger and reach for a quick, not always healthy snack.
You might need to modify your total fluid intake based on several factors:
Is water the only option for staying hydrated?
No. You don't need to rely only on water to meet your fluid needs. What you eat also provides a significant portion. For example, many fruits and vegetables, such as watermelon and spinach, are almost 100% water by weight.
You can also flavour your water to make it more enjoyable to drink. Add a lemon/lime wedge, cucumber slices or a few frozen raspberries. Is it too cold outside? Have a cup of hot water with lemon or orange slice. Maybe a few mint leaves.
In addition, beverages such as milk, juice and herbal teas are composed mostly of water. Even caffeinated drinks — such as coffee and soda — can contribute to your daily water intake while not ideal. But go easy on sugar-sweetened drinks. Regular soda, energy or sports drinks, and other sweet drinks usually contain a lot of added sugar, which may provide more calories than needed and more caffeine that you want.
How do I know if I'm drinking enough?
Your fluid intake is probably adequate if:
To prevent dehydration and make sure your body has the fluids it needs, make water your beverage of choice. It's a good idea to drink a glass of water:
Should I worry about drinking too much water?
Drinking too much water is rarely a problem for healthy, well-nourished adults. Athletes occasionally may drink too much water in an attempt to prevent dehydration during long or intense exercise. When you drink too much water, your kidneys can't get rid of the excess water. The sodium content of your blood becomes diluted. This is called hyponatremia and it can be life-threatening but unless you are an elite athlete, let's add a little more water into our daily routine.
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